By Mazurov V.D.
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Policy typology. whether there are differences in the levels of advocacy devoted to policy issues affecting a majority of members compared to those affecting advantaged subpopulations within marginalized groups, nor do they interrogate the speciﬁc effects associated with axes of privilege. Insights from strategic frameworks that emphasize organizational maintenance and the need to appeal to the median member suggest additional dimensions that help extend these dichotomous frameworks. From such a Downsian approach, representation corresponds to majority rule, and it is therefore the breadth of an issue’s impact that determines how active an organization will be.
As a result, these organizations fail to recognize that subgroups of their constituents are caught at the crossroads of multiple forms of disadvantage. Consequently, organizations erase and fail to address issues 24 · chapter two that affect subgroups of their constituencies whose marginalized positions are constituted by the intersections of different forms of disadvantage (Crenshaw 1989; C. Cohen 1999; Kurtz 2002). UNDERSTANDING INTERSECTIONALITY Groups can be marginalized or lack power along any of a variety of axes within what Patricia Hill Collins has called the “matrix of domination” (Collins 1990): they might lack ﬁnancial resources; they might now be or have been in the past the objects of de jure or de facto discrimination; they might lack electoral power and therefore have no or few elected representatives; or they might lack “cultural capital” because they are socially stigmatized by the broader society or the dominant culture (M.
14 While a useful supplement to intersectional understandings, such a strategic approach is insufﬁciently attentive to the issues of power and marginalization emphasized by intersectional paradigms. Strategic paradigms therefore conﬂate small advantaged subgroups with small disadvantaged subgroups, suggesting low levels of activity on behalf of both. The elisions of both intersectional and Downsian paradigms can be addressed, and the strengths of each approach harnessed, by expanding the key aspects of both frameworks to produce the four-part public policy issue typology that I introduced in chapter 1 (see ﬁg.