By Frank L. Smith III
Biological guns have threatened U.S. nationwide defense in view that at the very least global conflict II. traditionally, although, the U.S. army has overlooked learn, improvement, acquisition, and doctrine for biodefense. Following September eleven and the anthrax letters of 2001, the us all started spending billions of greenbacks according to yr on clinical countermeasures and organic detection platforms. yet so much of this investment now comes from the dep. of well-being and Human companies instead of the dept of security. Why has the U.S. army overlooked biodefense and allowed civilian organisations to take the lead in protecting the rustic opposed to organic assaults? In American Biodefense, Frank L. Smith III addresses this difficult and principally untold tale approximately technology, know-how, and nationwide security.
Smith argues that organizational frames and stereotypes have prompted either army overlook and the increase of civilian biodefense. within the armed companies, influential principles approximately kinetic conflict have undermined protection opposed to organic war. The impression of those rules on technological know-how and expertise demanding situations the traditional knowledge that nationwide defense coverage is pushed through threats or bureaucratic pursuits. Given the information at paintings contained in the U.S. army, Smith explains how the teachings discovered from biodefense may help remedy different very important difficulties that diversity from radiation guns to cyber attacks.
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Additional info for American Biodefense: How Dangerous Ideas about Biological Weapons Shape National Security
Like the BW program in World War II, the CWS had been established during World War I at the insistence of civilians rather than the mainstream military. According to Fredric Brown, “the military establishment, whose primary function was to prepare the country for war, however remote or unpleasant the contingency might be, failed utterly in the fulfillment of this responsibility by ignoring the question of gas warfare. ”17 The civilian Bureau of Mines started research on chemical defense in February 1917, but the Army did not seriously investigate this problem until months after the United States entered the war—a war in which chemical weapons had already been used for several years.
9 Moreover, the socially constructed relationship between these nonkinetic weapons correlated with the military’s distaste for them. 10 The US biological warfare program was therefore born inside the civilian Federal Security Agency and named the War Research Service. ), the War Research Service was initially responsible for coordinating all research and development related to biological warfare. Its first task was biodefense. 12 In order to maintain secrecy, laboratory facilities and pilot plants were built at Camp Detrick in Frederick, Maryland.
36] Stereotypical Neglect Origins of the US Biological Warfare Program: World War II to 1969 The US biological warfare program began during World War II as a civilian initiative that never became a mainstream military priority. The BW threat had been contemplated during the interwar period, but only rarely, and it was almost always rejected by US military planners. 3 But not the United States. 4 The idea that biological weapons were a credible threat therefore gained little if any traction inside the US military until the eve of World War II.