Download PDF by Pablo Bifani (auth.), Kriton Curi (eds.): Appropriate Waste Management for Developing Countries

By Pablo Bifani (auth.), Kriton Curi (eds.)

The significance of shielding the surroundings opposed to toxins is an goal which won foreign recognition within the fresh years. in keeping with the 1st precept of the announcement of the United international locations convention at the Human setting which happened in Stockholm in 1972, "man .... bears a solemn accountability to guard and enhance the surroundings for current and destiny genera­ tions". The United countries back of their wish to enhance the sanitation stipulations allover the area determined to proclaim the interval among 1981-1990 because the "International ingesting Water provide and Sanitation Decade." even if makes an attempt were made by way of inter­ nationwide companies to avoid pollutants, it really is tough to assert that those makes an attempt gave passable leads to constructing nations. the commonest purposes of failure are: a) to discover strategies to their environmental difficulties, strengthen­ ing nations often search the help of engineers and scientists from constructed nations. again and again, how­ ever, both out of lack of awareness of the neighborhood or as a result of monetary motivations, those specialists pop out with options that are faraway from being regarded as the "most appropriate." for this reason, the fundamental aim of defending the surroundings isn't accomplished. b) makes an attempt made by way of constructed international locations to "export" their wastes - specially the harmful ones - to the constructing global, is one other hazard - and infrequently cause of failure­ encountered within the box of Environmental Management.

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One of the local participants ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES 35 informed me that his industrial company (a brewery) had just signed a contract with a prominent American company to design and construct a highly sophisticated pure oxygen activated sludge system to treat liquid effluent from the plant. No doubt that this costly system could achieve very high performance levels if properly operated, but the realities of the situation were: (a) There were no trained plant operators available, since there were no wastewater treatment plants, primary or secondary, in the entire country.

M. SHAHALAM Itles in the levels of society and technology. The following technology selection methodology incorporates the above factors. , 1980a, 1980b) of the World Bank and USAID (Reid and Coffey, 1978) for data. The author is sincerely thankful to the authors and sponsors of these works. THE MODEL The principal objective of the model is to achieve the ultimate sanitation service which is the least costly, hygienically sound, structurally permanent and aesthetically acceptable and which has maximum convenience in use with least negative effect on the environment.

In Malaysia in 1974, for example, 250,000 tons of pineapples generated only 40,000 tons of canned fruit together with 210,000 tons of residues. The core, skins and fresh wastes of pineapples are often crushed for juice, and in Kenya and elsewhere the resulting bran is dried and used as cattle feed. In the Phillipines, the residues are converted into wine, but in other countries they are not utilized at all. Several technologies have been developed to use agricultural and agro-ind~strial residues to broaden the base of food production.

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