New PDF release: Attention and Self-Regulation: A Control-Theory Approach to

By C. S. Carver, M. F. Scheier

"Seek simplicity and mistrust it. " Alfred North Whitehead "It turns into all too transparent that a capability to determine styles in habit, a capability that a few may well think happy with, can lead extra simply to a flawed description than a correct one. " William T. Powers The objective of the theorist-the scholar-is to take a suite of observations of the area, and understand order in them. This technique unavoidably imposes a man-made simplicity upon these observations. that's, particular observations are weighed in a different way from one another every time a theoretical account is abstracted from uncooked stories. a few saw occasions are misunderstood or distorted, others are noticeable as representing random fluctuations and are neglected, and but others are considered as centrally very important. This abstraction and oversimplification of truth is inevitable in concept building. in addition, the abstracted imaginative and prescient builds upon itself. that's, as a constitution starts to emerge from persisted statement, the constitution itself courses the hunt for brand new info. the result's a development that's extra tricky than what existed ahead of, however it nonetheless is mostly easier than fact. it is vital for students to think within the price in their activity, and within the common correctness of the imaginative and prescient that publications their paintings. This dedication, and the desire of development that follows from it, give the opportunity to proceed even if the paintings is tough and slow.

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Extra info for Attention and Self-Regulation: A Control-Theory Approach to Human Behavior

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56-58). That is, the momentary reduction will immediately be opposed and counteracted by the temperature-regulating feedback loop. " In the person who has nO fever, the momentary presence of this temperature would elicit not shivering but sweating. Thus, the identical state of affairs-a temporary temperature of 38°C-leads a person with a fever and a person without a fever to exhibit diametrically opposed corrective actions. When a fever is in progress, the temperature regulating system has not given up or gone haywire.

In short, homeostatic mechanisms function to maintain stability in the face of continually changing external conditions. This summary statement regarding the function of homeostasis is, of course, very nearly the precise definition of a negative feedback loop. Indeed, Cannon (1929, 1932), who is widely acknowledged to have been the first to prominently employ the concept of homeostasis, provided a strong and clear foreshadowing of the evolution of control theory. Cannon held that the very constancy of the internal environment constituted evidence that there are active processes for which such constancy was a never-ending goal.

When viewed in this light, it is no surprise that the higher in a hierarchy one goes, the slower are the corrections of sensed deviations from reference values. In brief, lower-level discrepancies are more "demanding," in the sense that higherlevel discrepancies cannot be reduced without the reduction of a great many lowerlevel discrepancies. The implications of this differences in time scales will become apparent later on (Chapters 7 and 9). Section Summary In the preceding pages we have touched on what we perceive as the essentials of the control-theory approach to regulatory systems.

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