New PDF release: Auctoritas patrum: Formen und Wege der Senatsherrschaft

By Andreas Graeber

Auctoritas patrum ist ein kennzeichnender Begriff des Verfassungslebens in der römischen Republik. Er umfasst verschiedene Akte des Senats, der als Regierungsorgan mit anderen Verfassungsorganen zusammengewirkt hat. Für die examine der hierzu einschlägigen Fälle kommt der Erfassung der gesetzlichen und gewohnheitsrechtlichen Normen ebenso Bedeutung zu wie der Rekonstruktion des jeweiligen politischen und sozialgeschichtlichen Kontexts. Davon zu trennen ist der Begriff der auctoritas senatus als politischer Terminus im Sinne von politischer Einflussnahme des Senats auf das Handeln der Justice of the Peace. Es geht um Ansätze einer sozialanthropologisch fassbaren Mentalitätsgeschichte wie um Institutionengeschichte, in der Verfassungsfragen stets auch Teil der politischen Geschichte sind.

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Extra resources for Auctoritas patrum: Formen und Wege der Senatsherrschaft zwischen Politik und Tradition

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Bleicken, Volkstribunat, 24 ff. Waren die plebiscita vor 287 keine bloßen Resolutionen, sondern, unter vorheriger Befragung des Senats, leges, dann ist das Relationsrecht der Tribune nicht mit der lex Hortensia eingeführt worden, sondern wurde bereits vorher angewendet, Hinweise dazu bei Liv. 4, 12,4; 4, 15, 5 - 6. Dass Bleicken alle grundsätzlichen Rechte der Volkstribune (ius senatus habendi, zum erstenmal flir 216 überliefert, Liv. 22, 61, 5, ius referendi, ius sententiae dicendae, Ateius Capito b.

Er war zudem in einer fur das römische Volk entscheidenden, durch den hannibalischen Krieg bedingten Situation entstanden, ein Streit also, der angesichts dieser Gefahr fast bedeutungslos erscheinen musste (Liv. 27, 8, 1). Zur strittigen Frage, ob dieses Amt überhaupt einem Plebejer zugänglich war, vgl. Broughton, MRR I, 283 f. 99 Plin. nato 21, 6; Liv. 30, 1,4 - 6; Münzer, Adelsparteien, 182 - 191. 100 Dazu Wittmann, HbAW X, 3, 2, 2, S. 590. 101 Vgl. noch Liv. ; 45, 2, 4; 45, 54, 5. S. Bleicken, Kollisionen, 446 ff.

1, 17, 9). Am Ende der Republik, als die patrizischen gentes weitgehend verschwunden waren56, der Senat seine ehemalige Funktion als politisches Entscheidungs- und Machtzentrum an einzelne Magistrate und an die von ihnen beherrschten Volksversammlungen verloren hatte, fasst Livius abschließend zusammen, hodie in quoque legibus magistratibus rogandis usur- patur idem ius vi adempta; priusquam populus suffragium ineat, in ineertum eomitiorum eventum patres auetores jiunt (Liv. 57 Rechtlich gesehen erteilten die Patrizier den Beschlüssen also ihr Vollwort.

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