By Jiří Vávra (auth.), Lee A. Bulla Jr., Thomas C. Cheng (eds.)
This is the introductory quantity of a brand new sequence to be issued below our common editorship. With the improvement of an unpre cedented raise in curiosity in comparative pathobiology, we're of the opinion and motive that Comparative PathobioZogy may still develop into the focus for the booklet of definitive studies and the lawsuits of important symposia during this sector of contemporary biomedical technological know-how. even though the time period is now in universal use, the query remains to be occasionally raised as to what "pathobiology" comprises. This large zone of recent biology comprises yet extends past conventional pathology. It additionally encompasses reviews directed at figuring out the biology, chemistry, and physics of infectious brokers, in cluding how they touch and invade the effected organism; the reactions of hosts to such brokers, in addition to to abiotic invaders; the ecologic parameters which facilitate an infection; and the advance of instruments crucial for the knowledge of hast pathogen interactions. In different phrases, pathobiology is inter disciplinary and accommodates all of these features of biology, chemistry, and physics which at once or in some way allow better knowing of the character of infectious and noninfectious ailments and the prospective implications of such in biomedicine, agriculture, and environmental technology. through "comparative" is intended an analytical and significant review of similar strategies as they follow to all different types of animals, invertebrates in addition to poikilothermic and homeothermic verte brates.
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Extra info for Biology of the Microsporidia
To date, they have been reported only in the cytoplasm of meronts of Nosema bombyais (Ishihara, 1970) and in the cytoplasm of dividing meronts of ~futchnikoveZZa (Vivier and Schrevel, 1973) where they are represented by classical microtubules (20-25 nm in diameter) arranged laterally to the dividing nucleus. There has been no record of cytoplasmic filaments in microsporidia and the mechanism of the cytoplasmic constriction during cytokinesis is unknown (Szollosi, 1971). 4. Mitochondria Mitochondria are not present in microsporidian cells at my stage of development (Vavra, 1965) and this fact has been confirmed by all investigators of the microsporidian fine structure.
III. SPORE STRUCTURE The spore is the terminal stage of development and its structure is peculiarly adapted to its function of transmitting infectious material to a new host. The microsporidian spore is a unicellular entity in which all specialized organelles originate by cytoplasmic differentiation from the sporoblast. At one time the spore was thought to be similar to myxosporidian and actinomyxidian spores which are truly multicellular structures. rovec (1932) was the first to demonstrate convincingly that the entire microsporidian spore is a single cell containing a single nucleus (or a diplokaryon in some species).
Vey. 37 J. VÄVRA 38 Fig. 38. Figs. 39 - 41. Sporoblast of Ameson (syn. Nosema) miahaeZis showing the manubroid part of the polar tube (MNB), the anchoring disc (AD), polar aperture with septa (PA) and the polaroplast (PL). Note that the lamellae of the polaroplast are arranged in bundles of three membranes. X 189,000. (Enlarged in the inset; X 400,000). From Weidner (1970). The polar Coaaospo~a) b~aahynema. filament (PF) is ensheated by a honeycomb layer (arrows) apparently representing a special kind of polaroplast.