By James Sumner
How did the brewing of beer turn into a systematic method? Sumner explores this question through charting the speculation and perform of the alternate in Britain and eire through the eighteenth and 19th centuries.
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Additional resources for Brewing science, technology and print, 1700-1880
2 THE THEORIST AND THE THERMOMETER COMBRUNE (Mr. Michael), the first who has, with any degree of accuracy, applied the thermometer to use in brewing, V, 3. His table of the medium heat of the air in and about London, in each season of the year, ibid. Great pity that he did not endeavour to render his book intitled ‘The Theory and Practice of Brewing’ more intelligible than it is, 111. J. Mills , from the index to A New System of Practical Husbandry1 Michael Combrune’s Essay on Brewing of 1758 looks like a convenient milestone.
Reproduced courtesy of the Wellcome Library, London. 26 Brewing Science, Technology and Print, 1700–1880 ton’s reluctance to involve himself in brewhouse practicalities left him totally reliant on some bitterly fractious clerks. 72 The implications of these circumstances for the likelihood of public revelations were mixed. Managing brewers, like small-scale proprietors, possessed much knowledge drawn from systematic practical investigation, but were unlikely to disclose it. As a parting shot in his resignation letter to Cotton, Daux described a controlled experiment to prove his claim that open vessels caused sourness, the point being that he doubted Cotton’s ability to comprehend it: Daux’s wider stock of communicable knowledge was retained to secure his employability elsewhere.
The apparatus and sequence of operations are immediately recognizable, as is much of the terminology. Harrison calls the infusion mixture of malt in water a ‘mash’: the term mashing for this operation, and mash-tun for the vessel used, became universal in published sources in English soon after 1700. The sweet liquid extract made by mashing is ‘woort’, later regularized as wort. Surflet, translating from his French source, calls the vessel for heating water and hop-boiling a ‘copper’: any such vessel is still a copper today, whatever materials it is made of.